Tungsten Copper for Substrates
Tungsten Copper for Substrate
A rocket engine component is formed as a tungsten-copper composite substrate, and a functionally-gradient material coating overlying and contacting the substrate. The functionally-gradient material coating has a composition that varies nonlinearly through a thickness of the coating so as to minimize thermal stresses through the coating, and such that the functionally-gradient material coating is tungsten adjacent to the substrate and is rhenium remote from the substrate. In a preferred form, the functionally-gradient material coating includes a tungsten sub layer overlying and contacting the substrate, a tungsten-rhenium sub layer overlying and contacting the tungsten sub layer; and a rhenium sub layer overlying and contacting the tungsten-rhenium sub layer. The functionally-gradient material coating is preferably applied by a low-temperature deposition technique such as plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.
Wafer-level packaging can result in significant yield improvement, cost savings, and other improvements in function. For power devices, mismatch between coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE's) between the device and the mounting substrate or package can induce stress that reduces reliability. Adapting CTE-matched composite materials to wafer-level packaging schemes would be beneficial. We describe processes and show data for tungsten-copper substrates that meet wafer specifications for form and finish.
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