Tungsten Copper Functionally Graded
The functional insert (or functional core) is intimately bonded to the surrounding body. This body constrains the thermal expansion of the insert in the x and y direction during temperature excursions in such a manner that the resulting thermal expansion for the functional core is equal to that of the surrounding body. The expansion along the z axis is insignificant for all practical purposes in the final end use.
Some conventional users of copper tungsten C-mounts for semiconductor laser diodes attach the semiconductor die directly to the mount (a). Functionally graded material configurations can be center mounted (b), edge-mounted and constrained from three sides (c), or the function core can be constrained using an open-pocket configuration(d). Alternative center-mounted (e) and edge-mounted (f) designs allow incorporation of other high-frequency electrical components that are electrically insulated from WCu base to control laser operation.
Functionally graded materials for laser-diode mounts have been manufactured using standard WCu grade formulations for the surrounding body of the mount and higher-copper-content formulations for the functional core. Typically, a 50/50 WCu formulation has been used for the functionally graded material core, and a 15/85 WCu formulation has been used for the surrounding body. This results in an effective thermal conductivity of 320 W/mK in the core, with an effective coefficient of thermal expansion of 7.11 ppm/°C. The semiconductor laser die is mounted on top of the functional core as in the case of a centrally mounted device.
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